Development of advanced polymer nanocomposite capacitors

Miguel Mendoza, University of Texas at El Paso

Abstract

The current development of modern electronics has driven the need for new series of energy storage devices with higher energy density and faster charge/discharge rate. Batteries and capacitors are two of the most widely used energy storage devices. Compared with batteries, capacitors have higher power density and significant higher charge/discharge rate. Therefore, high energy density capacitors play a significant role in modern electronic devices, power applications, space flight technologies, hybrid electric vehicles, portable defibrillators, and pulse power applications. Dielectric film capacitors represent an exceptional alternative for developing high energy density capacitors due to their high dielectric constants, outstanding breakdown voltages, and flexibility. The implementation of high aspect ratio dielectric inclusions such as nanowires into polymer capacitors could lead to further enhancement of its energy density. Therefore, this research effort is focused on the development of a new series of dielectric capacitors composed of nanowire reinforced polymer matrix composites. This concept of nanocomposite capacitors combines the extraordinary physical and chemical properties of the one-dimension (1D) nanoceramics and high dielectric strength of polymer matrices, leading to a capacitor with improved dielectric properties and energy density. ^ Lead-free sodium niobate (NaNbO3) and lead-containing lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.65PMN-0.35PT) nanowires were synthesized following hydrothermal and sol-gel approaches, respectively. The as-prepared nanowires were mixed with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix using solution-casting method for nanocomposites fabrication. The dielectric constants and breakdown voltages of the NaNbO3/PVDF and 0.65PMN-0.35PT/PVDF nanocomposites were measured under different frequency ranges and temperatures in order to determine their maximum energy (J/cm3) and specific (J/g) densities. The electrical properties of the synthesized nanoceramics were compared with commercially available barium titanate (BaTiO3) and lead zirconate titanate Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 powders embedded into a PVDF matrix. The resulting dielectric film capacitors represent an excellent alternative energy storage device for future high energy density applications.^

Subject Area

Engineering, Mechanical|Nanoscience|Engineering, Materials Science

Recommended Citation

Mendoza, Miguel, "Development of advanced polymer nanocomposite capacitors" (2012). ETD Collection for University of Texas, El Paso. AAI1533242.
http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/dissertations/AAI1533242

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