The effects of cultural values on international advertising effectiveness: A study of sex appeals in fashion advertising
The purpose of this study is to examine how culture and nationality affect international advertising practices and contribute to the long-going debate whether standardization or localization strategies should be sought when targeting an international consumer audience. The analysis utilizes a between-subject, post-test only experiment to explore the influence of nationality, Hofstede's UAI and sex appeal on consumers' attitudes toward the ad (Aad) and attitudes toward the brand (Ab). This exploration centers its attention in studying sample groups from Mexico and the United States. ^ Findings suggest sex appeal does influence Aad and Ab as denoted in general respondents more favorable attitude toward a milder sex appeal than to a stronger erotic stimulus. Nationality did influence Aad. Nonetheless, it did not show significant effects on Ab and Aad. UAI, nationality and sex appeal had no significant interaction. The results of this study concluded that nationality and cultural dimensions as marketing/advertising variables need to be further reassessed in order to determine the applicability of sexual appeals in today's contemporary international advertising context, and contribute to long-going standardization/localization debate. ^
Garcia, Eli, "The effects of cultural values on international advertising effectiveness: A study of sex appeals in fashion advertising" (2004). ETD Collection for University of Texas, El Paso. AAIEP10783.