Docetaxel plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide: A phase II study with pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic analyses in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.
Docetaxel plus prednisone is currently the standard first‐line treatment in metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity and pharmacodynamic/pharmacogenetic profile of docetaxel plus prednisone in combination with metronomic cyclophosphamide in mCRPC patients.
Forty‐one chemotherapy‐naive patients received docetaxel (60 mg/m2intravenously every 3 weeks up to 12 cycles) and, from day 2, prednisone 10 mg/day, celecoxib 400 mg/day, and metronomic cyclophosphamide 50 mg/day, continuously. Plasma VEGF and bFGF were detected by ELISA. Real‐time PCR‐SNP analysis of VEGF gene was performed using an ABI PRISM 7900HT SDS and TaqMan SNP genotyping.
Eighty‐seven percent of patients were free of progression at 6 months. A decrease in prostate‐specific antigen ≥ 50% was observed in 82% of 39 evaluable patients, with a median time to progression of 12.3 months. Grade 3 adverse events were neutropenia (5%), thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, and stomatitis (2.5%). Median PFS and OS were 14.9 months (95% CI, 9.2‐15.3 months) and 33.3 months (95% CI, 23‐35.6 months), respectively. Of 11 patients (28%) with evaluable disease, 5 (44%) achieved a complete response, 2 (11%) a partial response, and 2 (11%) stable disease, whereas 2 showed disease progression. The −1154A/G VEGF polymorphism, plasma VEGF, and bFGF after the first cycle of chemotherapy may represent useful pharmacodynamic markers to predict better outcomes.
The combination of docetaxel and oral metronomic chemotherapy is effective and well tolerated in mCRPC patients and may deserve further evaluation.