Does a Family History of Type 2 Diabetes Affect Exercise Induced Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity, Metabolic Flexibility, and Myokine Expression in Mexican-American Males?

Manuel Amador, University of Texas at El Paso

Abstract

A family history of diabetes (FH+) is considered a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is not known whether exercise induced improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS) and metabolic flexibility (MF) are impacted by a FH+. Purpose: To determine if a FH+ limits exercise induced improvements in Insulin sensitivity, MF, body composition, and strength following an 8-week combined aerobic and resistance training intervention compared to those without a family history of diabetes (FH-). Methods: 19 (FH- n=9, age 21.89 ± 0.60 years, BMI 27.51 ± 1.68 kg/m2; FH+ n=10, age 23.41 ± 0.86 years, BMI 26.64 ± 1.02 kg/m2) sedentary, normoglycemic, Mexican-American males underwent 8-weeks of combined exercise training 3 times/week (35-min aerobic & 45-min resistance training/session). A controlled diet (55/15/30% Cho/Pro/Fat) was provided 5 days before pre/post intervention tests. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. MF was assessed by change in respiratory quotient (ΔRQ) at the insulin stimulated state of the clamp compared to the fasted state. Body composition was measured using DXA. Upper and lower body strength were measured by 1 repetition maximum bench press and leg strength dynamometer respectively. Results: Insulin sensitivity significantly improved after 8 weeks of combined exercise training in both groups (FH- 2.99 ± 0.27 to 3.89 ± 0.28 ml/kg estimated metabolic body size (EMBS), p=0.02; FH+ 3.63 ± 0.50 to 4.82 ± 0.51 ml/kg EMBS; p=0.002). MF did not change (FH- 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.09 ± 0.01, p=0.71; FH+ 0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.11 ± 0.02, p=0.24). Fat free mass significantly increased in both groups (FH- 54.82 ± 2.28 to 56.52 ± 1.87 kg, p=0.02, FH+ 51.14 ± 1.58 to 53.42 ± 1.8 kg, p=0.001). Upper body strength (FH- 155.00 ± 20.83 to 181.10±21.13 lb, p=0.0001; FH+ 148.50 ± 16.87 to 178.00 ± 16.75 lb, p=0.0001) and lower body strength (FH- 354.44 ± 31.97 to 416.67 ± 27.55 lb, p=0.0006; FH+ 356.00 ± 20.18 to 419.50 ± 15.99 lb, p=0.0003) significantly increased in both groups. Insulin sensitivity Improvement reported as percent (%) change were not different between groups (FH- 34.90 ± 11.00 % vs. FH+ 40.66 ± 12.19 %; p>0.05). Percent change in metabolic flexibility was not blunted by FH+ between groups at baseline (FH- 9.97 ± 2.27 % vs. FH+ 10.72 ± 1.93 %; p>0.05) or post intervention (FH- 12.73 ± 2.69 % vs. 15.81 ± 3.05 %, p>0.05) Conclusion: FH+ was not indicative of a lower insulin sensitivity compared to FH- in healthy young men. Additionally, FH+ is not a limiting factor for exercise induced improvements in Insulin sensitivity, MF, body composition, and strength in young normoglycemic Mexican-American men.

Subject Area

Health sciences|Physiology

Recommended Citation

Amador, Manuel, "Does a Family History of Type 2 Diabetes Affect Exercise Induced Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity, Metabolic Flexibility, and Myokine Expression in Mexican-American Males?" (2018). ETD Collection for University of Texas, El Paso. AAI13425864.
https://digitalcommons.utep.edu/dissertations/AAI13425864

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