Juventino Muñoz P.


Anaís Acosta


Bracero Oral History

Biographical Synopsis of Interviewee

Mr. Juventino Muñoz was born on November 11th, 1943, in Lagunillas Fontezuelas, Michoacán, México; his parents had lands and his family lived well; at 12 his family lost everything and he had to help by working in the fields; he was formally educated through the fourth grade; later in 1963 he became a bracero and worked in the cucumber, lemon and orange fields of Michigan, and California; his last contract ended in 1964, when the Bracero Program ended; he went back to Mexico and later immigrated to the United States.

Summary of Interview

Mr. Muñoz briefly recalls his family and childhood; he remembers his family living under good conditions having lands and animals; when he was around 12 years old his family lost everything and he had to quit school in order to work in the fields; he served in the Mexican military until he became a bracero in June of 1963; Mr. Muñoz recalls the entire process, including going through centers in Piedras Negras and Mexicali; in addition, he mentions going through medical examinations; as a bracero he worked in the cucumber fields in Michigan and then he worked on the lemon and orange fields of California; he goes into detail about the living and working conditions, camps size, payments, friendships, and recreational activities; Mr. Muñoz completed his contracts and on February 15th, 1964 he completed his last one because the bracero program ended; he went back to Mexico and later he managed to arrange his residency with the help of his brother and his boss; he ultimately raised his children in the United States; Mr. Muñoz says his overall memories of being a bracero are positive and that because of the Bracero Program he was able to meet many places and improve his economic situation.

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Length of Interview

56 minutes

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33 pages


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Interview in Spanish.