The Standardization of Printable Materials and Direct Writing Systems
Direct-writing systems will be leading the future of additive manufacturing in that they have simple and cost-effective processes. There are various types of direct-writing systems, such as the roll-to-roll (R2R), microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet systems. These technologies are being used for the production of radio frequency identification tags (RFIDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), light-emitting diodes (LEDs), flexible electronics, solar cells, antennas, etc. Recently, the standardization of printing materials and equipment has become a key issue in the printed electronics industry. The standardization of printed electronics can be categorized into four parts: equipment, materials, testing methods, and the education of this technology.